Yearly I create obscure New 12 months’s resolutions, however this yr I made a decision to strive one thing totally different.

SMART goals graphic with a woman holding a compass for direction, pens for writing goals, clock to time-bound, and chess pieces for strategy.

Utilizing the SMART purpose framework (particular, measurable, attainable, related, and time-bound), I reworded my 2023 purpose from “learn extra books” to “learn two books per 30 days to hit my purpose of studying 24 earlier than the tip of the yr.”

The SMART framework is an efficient technique for creating extra particular and attainable objectives. Plus, it offers benchmarks towards which you’ll measure your progress — when you have a bigger, extra daunting purpose, smaller steps will help you stay motivated.

Right here, let’s discover what SMART objectives are, why they’re necessary, and easy methods to make your personal.

Download your free marketing goal-setting template here. 

SMART Goals Template from HubSpotDownload this Template for Free

Within the working world, the affect of SMART objectives continues to develop. The rationale why profitable advertising groups all the time hit their numbers is that in addition they set SMART objectives. Use the template above to comply with alongside and create your personal SMART objectives.

What are SMART objectives?

SMART objectives are concrete targets that you simply intention to hit over a sure interval. These objectives needs to be fastidiously drafted by a supervisor and their direct report back to set them up for achievement. “SMART” is an acronym that describes crucial traits of every purpose.

“SMART” stands for “particular,” “measurable,” “attainable,” “related,” and “time-bound.” Every SMART purpose ought to have these 5 traits to make sure the purpose may be reached and advantages the worker. Discover out what every attribute means beneath, and easy methods to write a SMART purpose that exemplifies them.

SMART Aim Acronym

Most hint the SMART acronym again to a 1981 paper by George Doran, “There’s a S.M.A.R.T. way to write management goals and objectives.” His colleagues Arthur Miller and James Cunningham are additionally credited for his or her work on this paper.

The “Targets” part of this paper asks “How do you write significant aims?” Then goes on to outline the SMART acronym as the next:

  • Particular — goal a selected space for enchancment.
  • Measurable — quantify or no less than counsel an indicator of progress.
  • Assignable — specify who will do it.
  • Lifelike — state what outcomes can realistically be achieved, given accessible assets.
  • Time-related — specify when the consequence(s) may be achieved.

The which means of every letter on this acronym can shift based mostly on the consumer and the way they need to apply this framework to their enterprise. You possibly can see the preferred phrases and their best-known options beneath:

SMART goals acronym

Image Source

The paper additionally says that not each purpose might want to meet all 5 standards. As a substitute, the purpose was to make use of this acronym to create a benchmark for administration excellence.

However as we speak, the SMART acronym often seems like this:

Measurable goals: Smart goals

SMART objectives are:

  • Particular
  • Measurable
  • Attainable
  • Related
  • Time-bound

This framework continues to be helpful as a result of it is simple to recollect and will help streamline the goal-setting course of.

Let’s speak extra about every a part of the SMART acronym and how one can apply this as you create measurable objectives for your self and your crew.

S — Particular

Particular objectives are clear and embrace exact particulars. Specificity makes your purpose simple to know and perform.

To examine in case your purpose is particular, ask a couple of particular person to assessment your purpose and rephrase what you are attempting to do. In case your proofreaders give you a couple of concept of your remaining purpose, it is not particular sufficient.

M — Measurable

Measurable objectives are targets you could calculate and monitor over time. Targets that embrace a set measurement or metric are extra concrete than anecdotal objectives or plans based mostly on somebody’s opinion.

Measurable objectives offer you and your crew an opportunity to trace progress towards a purpose and make adjustments over time. It additionally provides you a transparent and particular image of success.

To determine easy methods to make your purpose measurable, look intently at your final purpose. Ask your self:

  • How can we management this purpose?
  • Is that this purpose clear and actionable?
  • Is there something subjective about this purpose?

Then, select the metrics that almost all instantly hook up with your remaining purpose. In case you’re undecided which metrics to decide on, this guide to KPIs will help you get began.

A — Attainable

Attainable objectives are difficult however achievable. This facet of goal-setting ought to think about the distinctive qualities of your crew nicely as the issues and blockers you’re employed on collectively.

To set bold however attainable objectives, start by thinking big. Create a listing the place you think about the very best outcomes. Take a break for a day or two, then come again and edit your record with each query, problem, and critique you possibly can consider.

Targets which might be too simple to satisfy will not inspire your crew or result in development. However objectives which might be unrealistic can demoralize your crew and pressure assets. It is necessary to seek out the best steadiness.

R — Related

Related objectives help the mission, imaginative and prescient, and priorities of your corporation.

To verify your SMART objectives hook up with your corporation objectives, begin the purpose and objective-setting course of with a fast assessment.

Learn via your organization’s mission and vision statements, or print and publish them on the wall in a shared house. Then assessment quarterly enterprise stories, latest memos, or any latest communication about enterprise objectives. This may imply you begin the method with what’s related on the prime of your thoughts.

After you draft your SMART objectives, do one other fast scan of those paperwork and assessment your objectives for relevance.

It is easy to get excited a couple of new concept, even when it would not align with firm priorities. However the perfect concepts will help your most important enterprise objectives.

T — Time-Certain

Time-bound objectives have a selected deadline or timeframe. Including a time constraint to your purpose creates a way of urgency.

Urgency combines significance with a necessity for motion. That is generally as a result of there is a worry of penalties. Different occasions workers really feel it as a result of they’re keen to arrange for the longer term or meet an thrilling purpose.

Time constraints are necessary to your goal-setting course of. It’s because duties which might be time-sensitive typically really feel extra necessary than duties with no timeframe connected. Which means that, irrespective of how important a mission is, it is going to drop in precedence with no deadline.

Fortunately, it is simple to create a sense of urgency. Simply add a realistic timeframe to your goal. Time-bound objectives additionally set clear expectations for stakeholders, which improves communication.

Why are SMART objectives necessary?

SMART objectives are necessary to set as they:

  • Aid you work with clear intentions, not broad or obscure objectives
  • Present a way to gauge your success by setting benchmarks to satisfy
  • Give smart aims which might be sensible and achievable
  • Reduce out pointless or irrelevant work that would take away from what’s necessary
  • Set a transparent starting and finish to stick to in reaching your objectives

Whenever you make objectives which might be particular, measurable, attainable, related, and time-bound, you are rising your odds for achievement by verifying that the purpose is achievable, figuring out the metrics that outline success, and making a roadmap to achieve these metrics.

In case your objectives are summary, if you do not know what it is going to take to attain success, or if you happen to do not give your self a deadline to finish steps, you might lose focus and fall in need of what you need to accomplish.

Do SMART objectives truly work?

Briefly — sure, if completed accurately.

As an example, one study found 76% of participants who wrote down their objectives, made a listing of goal-driven actions, and offered weekly progress stories to a good friend achieved their objectives — which is 33% larger than these with unwritten objectives.

Moreover, I polled roughly 300 individuals within the U.S. and located 52% consider SMART objectives assist them obtain their objectives extra typically than in the event that they did not use a SMART framework.

SMART goals statistic showing people believe SMART goals work

Setting unrealistic objectives and making an attempt to measure them with out consideration of earlier efficiency, overly brief time frames, or together with too many variables will lead you astray.

Nevertheless, these objectives work provided that formulated correctly and in the event that they consider the motive and cadence of these engaged on them. Moreover, your SMART objectives can solely succeed when the workers working in direction of them have the means to attain them.

Advantages of SMART Targets

Provide Focus and Readability

The method of purpose completion is commonly extra sophisticated than it appears. Distractions, facet duties, and different tasks can all steer you away from finishing your tasks.

However SMART objectives enhance focus as a result of they simplify your to-do record of duties. On the identical time, they provide a direct reminder of why these particular duties are necessary.

Enhance Motivation

It is common to expertise stress or overwhelm within the office. One contributor is commonly a scarcity of clear objectives. And that mixture could make a critical impression in your motivation.

However a SMART purpose can enhance vitality, enhance course, and inspire you and your crew as a result of:

  • It will get everybody extra concerned within the course of
  • It helps workers perceive why their work is necessary
  • It presents a brand new problem and course for people who find themselves feeling caught

Enhance Accountability

Worry of failure typically stops folks from doing their greatest work. To keep away from this stressor, you would possibly keep away from making a dedication within the office.

However accountability is a necessary for high-growth groups. It helps you and your crew have interaction, take possession of their work, and take accountability for progress.

SMART objectives enhance accountability as a result of they offer groups and managers a easy approach to monitor progress towards shared aims. This makes it simpler for groups to know the training, teaching, and suggestions they should optimize efficiency.

SMART objectives additionally assist groups handle and plan their time extra successfully. They make it simpler to prioritize duties too.

Strengthen Communication

Based on 2023 data from, 68% of businesspeople have wasted time attributable to communication points. And solely 7% of companies fee their communication as “glorious.” Clearly, effective communication is each troublesome and important to any enterprise.

SMART objectives assist with efficient communication. It’s because they’re objectives that a number of coworkers, groups, and departments can rapidly perceive. This improves knowledge-sharing, collaborative efforts, and communication.

Assist Handle Sources

Correct useful resource administration can cut back prices, make processes extra environment friendly, and enhance productiveness. However managing assets is hard.

Put merely, a enterprise is a bunch of individuals, every with distinct data and expertise, working towards particular person objectives. These particular person objectives finally come collectively to satisfy frequent objectives, however within the course of, issues can get just a little wonky.

However SMART objectives are nice for useful resource administration. It’s because they provide a construction that makes it simpler for groups to see the place a course of is creating blocks or challenges. This helps groups perceive when priorities and assets are out of sync. It additionally creates a shared goal that may encourage folks to make needed however troublesome adjustments.

Enhance Innovation

Innovation is a course of that mixes creativity and problem-solving expertise to get unique concepts. You might have heard the frequent perception says that creativity requires a scarcity of boundaries. And a few critiques of SMART objectives say that they’ll have unfavorable impacts if goal-setting is simply too inflexible or narrowly outlined.

However there’s in depth knowledge, together with this research from Harvard Business Review, that claims constraints typically positively impression innovation. SMART objectives enhance innovation as a result of they create motivational challenges. The motivation is available in half from the constraints groups have to work inside.

Improve Efficiency

For managers, SMART objectives supply a helpful framework for enhancing worker efficiency. They make progress towards mission objectives clear. This goal-setting framework can even apply to long-term private objectives for every member of your crew.

For people, SMART objectives could make it simpler to steadiness and monitor work tasks. They’ll enhance efficiency as a result of they allow you to:

  • Measure progress
  • Determine strengths and weaknesses
  • Construct optimistic momentum

Setting and dealing towards SMART objectives can even allow you to develop new behaviors that may enhance efficiency.

Let’s check out some sensible examples of SMART objectives to color a clearer image of what they’re.

1. Weblog Site visitors Aim

  • Particular: I need to enhance our blog’s traffic by rising our weekly publishing frequency from 5 to eight occasions per week. Our two bloggers will enhance their workload from writing two posts per week to 3 posts per week, and our editor will enhance her workload from writing one publish per week to 2 posts per week.
  • Measurable: Our purpose is an 8% enhance in visitors.
  • Attainable: Our weblog visitors elevated by 5% final month once we elevated our weekly publishing frequency from three to 5 occasions per week.
  • Related: By rising weblog visitors, we’ll enhance model consciousness and generate extra leads, giving gross sales extra alternatives to shut.
  • Time-Certain: Finish of this month.
  • SMART Aim: On the finish of this month, our weblog will see an 8% raise in visitors by rising our weekly publishing frequency from 5 posts per week to eight posts per week.

smart goal example on blog traffic

2. Fb Video Views Aim

  • Particular: I need to enhance our common views per native video by reducing our video content material combine from eight matters to our 5 hottest matters.
  • Measurable: Our purpose is a 25% enhance in views.
  • Attainable: After we minimize down our video content material combine on Fb from 10 matters to our eight hottest matters, our common views per native video elevated by 20%.
  • Related: By rising common views per native video on Fb, we’ll enhance our social media following and model consciousness, reaching extra potential prospects with our video content material.
  • Time-Certain: In six months.
  • SMART Aim: In six months, we’ll see a 25% enhance in common video views per native video on Fb by reducing our video content material combine from eight matters to our 5 hottest matters.

3. E-mail Subscription Aim

  • Particular: I need to enhance the variety of e-mail weblog subscribers by rising our Fb promoting price range on weblog posts that traditionally purchase probably the most e-mail subscribers.
  • Measurable: Our purpose is a 50% enhance in subscribers.
  • Attainable: Since we began utilizing this tactic three months in the past, our e-mail weblog subscriptions have elevated by 40%.
  • Related: By rising the variety of e-mail weblog subscribers, our weblog will drive extra visitors, enhance model consciousness, and drive extra results in our gross sales crew.
  • Time-Certain: In three months.
  • SMART Aim: In three months, we’ll see a 50% enhance within the variety of e-mail weblog subscribers by rising our Fb promoting price range on posts that traditionally purchase probably the most weblog subscribers.

4. Webinar Signal-Up Aim

  • Particular: I need to enhance the variety of sign-ups for our Fb Messenger webinar by selling it via social, e-mail, our weblog, and Fb Messenger.
  • Measurable: Our purpose is a 15% enhance in sign-ups.
  • Attainable: Our final Fb Messenger webinar noticed a ten% enhance in sign-ups once we solely promoted it via social, e-mail, and our weblog.
  • Related: When our webinars generate extra leads, gross sales have extra alternatives to shut.
  • Time-Certain: By June 1, the day of the webinar.
  • SMART Aim: By June 1, the day of our webinar, we’ll see a 15% enhance in sign-ups by selling it via social, e-mail, our weblog, and Fb Messenger.

smart goal example on webinar sign-ups

5. Touchdown Web page Efficiency Aim

  • Particular: I need our touchdown pages to generate extra leads by switching from a one-column type to a two-column type.
  • Measurable: My purpose is a 30% enhance in lead technology.
  • Attainable: After we A/B tested our conventional one-column type versus a two-column type on our highest-traffic touchdown pages, we found that two-column types convert 27% higher than our conventional one-column types, at a 99% significance stage.
  • Related: If we generate extra content material leads, gross sales can shut extra prospects.
  • Time-Certain: One yr from now.
  • SMART Aim: One yr from now, our touchdown pages will generate 30% extra leads by switching their types from one column to 2 columns.

6. Hyperlink-Constructing Technique Aim

  • Particular: I need to enhance our web site’s natural visitors by growing a link-building technique that will get different publishers to hyperlink to our web site. This will increase our rating in search engine outcomes, permitting us to generate extra natural visitors.
  • Measurable: Our purpose is 40 backlinks to our firm homepage.
  • Attainable: Based on our SEO analysis tool, there are at present 500 low-quality hyperlinks directing to our homepage from elsewhere on the web. Given the variety of partnerships we at present have with different companies, and that we generate 10 new inbound hyperlinks per 30 days with none outreach on our half, an extra 40 inbound hyperlinks from a single link-building marketing campaign is a big however possible goal.
  • Related: Natural visitors is our prime supply of recent leads, and backlinks are one of many greatest rating elements on search engines like google and yahoo like Google. If we construct hyperlinks from high-quality publications, our natural rating will increase, boosting our visitors and leads consequently.
  • Time-Certain: 4 months from now.
  • SMART Aim: Over the following 4 months, I’ll construct 40 extra backlinks that direct to To take action, I’ll collaborate with Ellie and Andrew from our PR division to attach with publishers and develop an efficient outreach technique.

7. Lowering Churn Fee Aim

  • Particular: I need to cut back buyer churn by 5% for my firm as a result of each buyer loss is a mirrored image of our service’s high quality and notion.
  • Measurable: Contact 30 at-risk prospects per week and supply buyer help each day for 5 new prospects throughout their onboarding course of.
  • Attainable: Our product providing has simply improved and now we have the means to speculate extra into our buyer help crew, and will probably have 5 at-risk prospects to upscale month-to-month.
  • Related: We are able to arrange a buyer data base to trace prospects’ development within the purchaser’s journey and forestall churn by contacting them earlier than they lose curiosity.
  • Time-Certain: In 24 weeks.
  • SMART Aim: In 24 weeks, I’ll cut back the churn fee by 5% for my firm. To take action, we are going to contact 30 at-risk prospects per week and supply/spend money on buyer help to help 5 new prospects throughout onboarding each day and monitor their progress via a buyer data base.

8. Model Affinity Aim

  • Particular: I need to enhance our podcast listener depend as we try to ascertain ourselves as thought leaders in our market.
  • Measurable: A 40% enhance in listeners is our purpose.
  • Attainable: We are able to enhance our present price range and stage our podcaster’s cadence, to have the means to carry insightful conversations for our listeners to tune into.
  • Related: We created a podcast and have devoted a crew to supply fascinating company, sound mixing, and attention-grabbing thumbnails to get it began.
  • Time-Certain: In 4 months.
  • SMART Aim: In 4 months, we’ll see a 40% enhance in common listener depend in Apple Podcasts by offering our crew the price range and cadence to make insightful podcasts with high quality sound mixing and attention-grabbing thumbnails.

9. Podcast Listener Rely Aim

  • Particular: I need to enhance our podcast’s listener depend by selling our podcast throughout social channels. We are going to publish 4 quotes associated to new podcast episodes all through the month on our Twitter account, and we are going to publish six brief movies of our podcast conversations with company on our Instagram account all through the month.
  • Measurable: Our purpose is a 20% enhance in podcast listeners.
  • Attainable: Our podcast listener depend elevated by 5% final month once we printed two brief movies of our podcast dialog on Instagram.
  • Related: By rising podcast listener depend, we’ll enhance model consciousness and generate extra leads, giving gross sales extra alternatives to shut.
  • Time-Certain: Finish of this month.
  • SMART Aim: On the finish of this month, our podcast will see a 20% enhance in listeners by rising our social media promotions from two Instagram posts to 4 Twitter posts and 6 Instagram posts.

10. In-Individual Occasion Attendee Aim

  • Particular: I need to enhance attendance at our upcoming in-person occasion by 50% by sending out three e-mail reminders to our subscriber lists every week earlier than the occasion.
  • Measurable: Our purpose is a 50% enhance in attendees.
  • Attainable: Our attendee quantity elevated by 20% final yr once we despatched out one e-mail reminder to our subscriber lists.
  • Related: By rising attendee depend, we’ll enhance model loyalty by offering worth to our current prospects, and generate extra leads.
  • Time-Certain: August 30.
  • SMART Aim: By the point of our occasion on August thirtieth, our attendee quantity will enhance by 50% from the place it is at now (250 attendees), by sending out three e-mail reminders to our subscriber lists.

Now that you simply’ve seen examples of SMART objectives, let’s dive into easy methods to make your personal.

How to make a SMART goal: Do’s and Don’ts

1. Use particular wording.

When writing SMART goals, understand that they’re “particular” in that there is a exhausting and quick vacation spot the worker is making an attempt to achieve. “Get higher at my job,” is not a SMART purpose as a result of it is not particular. As a substitute, ask your self: What are you getting higher at? How a lot better do you need to get?

In case you’re a advertising skilled, your job most likely revolves round key performance indicators or KPIs. Due to this fact, you would possibly select a specific KPI or metric that you simply need to enhance on — like guests, leads, or prospects. You must also establish the crew members working towards this purpose, the assets they’ve, and their plan of motion.

In observe, a selected SMART purpose would possibly say, “Clifford and Braden will enhance the weblog’s visitors from e-mail …” precisely who’s concerned and what you are making an attempt to enhance on.

Frequent SMART Aim Mistake: Vagueness

Whilst you could have to preserve some objectives extra open-ended, it’s best to keep away from vagueness that would confuse your crew afterward. For instance, as an alternative of claiming, “Clifford will enhance e-mail advertising experiences,” say “Clifford will enhance e-mail advertising click on charges by 10%.”

2. Embrace measurable objectives.

SMART objectives needs to be “measurable” in you could monitor and quantify the purpose’s progress. “Enhance the weblog’s visitors from e-mail,” by itself, is not a SMART purpose as a result of you possibly can’t measure the rise. As a substitute, ask your self: How a lot e-mail advertising visitors do you have to attempt for?

If you wish to gauge your crew’s progress, that you must quantify your objectives, like reaching an X-percentage enhance in guests, leads, or prospects.

Let’s construct on the SMART purpose we began above. Now, our measurable SMART purpose would possibly say, “Clifford and Braden will enhance the weblog’s visitors from e-mail by 25% extra periods per 30 days … ” what you are rising, and by how a lot.

Frequent SMART Aim Mistake: No KPIs

That is in the identical gentle of avoiding vagueness. Whilst you would possibly want qualitative or open-ended proof to show your success, it’s best to nonetheless give you a quantifiable KPI. For instance, as an alternative of claiming, “Customer support will enhance buyer happiness,” say, “We would like the common name satisfaction rating from prospects to be a seven out of ten or larger.”

3. Purpose for realistically attainable objectives.

An “attainable” SMART purpose considers the worker’s potential to attain it. Ensure that X-percentage enhance is rooted in actuality. In case your weblog visitors elevated by 5% final month, attempt to enhance it by 8-10% this month, relatively than a lofty 25%.

It is essential to base your objectives by yourself analytics, not trade benchmarks, or else you would possibly chunk off greater than you possibly can chew. So, let’s add some “attainability” to the SMART purpose we created earlier on this weblog publish: “Clifford and Braden will enhance the weblog’s visitors from e-mail by 8-10% extra periods per 30 days … ” This fashion, you are not setting your self as much as fail.

Frequent SMART Aim Mistake: Unattainable Targets

Sure. You must all the time intention to enhance. However reaching for fully unattainable objectives could knock you astray and make it more durable to trace progress. Somewhat than saying, “We need to make 10,000% of what we made in 2022,” think about one thing extra attainable, like, “We need to enhance gross sales by 150% this yr,” or “We have now a quarterly purpose to achieve a 20% year-over-year gross sales enhance.”

4. Decide related objectives that relate to your corporation.

SMART objectives which might be “related” relate to your organization’s total enterprise objectives and account for present traits in your trade. As an example, will rising your visitors from e-mail result in extra income? And, is it truly attainable so that you can considerably boost your blog’s email traffic given your present e-mail advertising campaigns?

In case you’re conscious of those elements, you’re extra more likely to set objectives that profit your organization — not simply you or your division.

So, what does that do to our SMART purpose? It would encourage you to regulate the metric you are utilizing to trace the purpose’s progress. For instance, possibly your corporation has traditionally relied on natural visitors for producing leads and income, and analysis suggests you possibly can generate extra certified leads this fashion.

Our SMART purpose would possibly as an alternative say, “Clifford and Braden will enhance the weblog’s natural visitors by 8-10% extra periods per 30 days.” This fashion, your visitors enhance is aligned with the enterprise’s income stream.

Frequent SMART Aim Mistake: Shedding Sight of the Firm

When your organization is doing nicely, it may be simple to say you need to pivot or develop in one other course. Whereas firms can efficiently do that, you do not need your crew to lose sight of how the core of your corporation works.

Somewhat than saying, “We need to begin a brand new B2B enterprise on prime of our B2C enterprise,” say one thing like, “We need to proceed rising B2C gross sales whereas researching the impression our merchandise may have on the B2B house within the subsequent yr.”

5. Make objectives time-bound by together with a timeframe and deadline info.

A “time-bound” SMART purpose retains you on schedule. Bettering on a purpose is nice, however not if it takes too lengthy. Attaching deadlines to your objectives places a wholesome dose of stress in your crew to perform them. This helps you make constant and vital progress in the long run.

For instance, which might you like: rising natural visitors by 5% each month, resulting in a 30-35% enhance in half a yr? Or making an attempt to extend visitors by 15% with no deadline and reaching that purpose in the identical timeframe? In case you picked the previous, you are proper.

So, what does our SMART purpose appear like as soon as we certain it to a timeframe? “Over the following three months, Clifford and Braden will work to extend the weblog’s natural visitors by 8-10%, reaching a complete of fifty,000 natural periods by the tip of August.”

Frequent SMART Aim Mistake: No Time Body

Having no timeframe or a extremely broad span of time famous in your purpose will trigger the hassle to get reprioritized or make it exhausting so that you can see in case your crew is on monitor. Somewhat than saying. “This yr, we need to launch a serious marketing campaign,” say, “In quarter one, we are going to give attention to marketing campaign manufacturing with the intention to launch the marketing campaign in quarter two.”

Make Your SMART Targets SMART-er

Now that you understand what a SMART purpose is, why it is necessary, and the framework to create one, it is time to put that info into observe. Whether or not you are setting objectives for a private achievement or as a part of hitting necessary advertising milestones, it is good to start out with what you need to obtain after which reverse-engineer it right into a concrete SMART purpose.

Editor’s notice: This publish was initially printed in December 2019 and has been up to date for comprehensiveness.

New Call to action

Lascia un commento

Il tuo indirizzo email non sarà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *